Medical management of head injury

Medical Management of Head Injur

  1. Medlcal Management of Head Injury* john M. Luce, M.D., F.C.C.P. Head injuries are the most common cause of disabil-ity and death among trauma patients, particu-larly those under 50 years of age. 1 Head injuries also impbse a large social burden, accounting fur over five million days of hospitalization and over 30 million day
  2. The medical management of head injury is intended to ensure systemic and cerebral homeostasis. From a cardiovascular standpoint, this means that MAP level should be maintained in the normal range so that CPP does not fall near the critical level of 50 to 60 mm Hg or rise to such an extent that CBF level is greatly increased
  3. 3. Hyperextension injury of head and neck or direct trauma to neck can cause a carotid artery injury. 4. Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg can lead to secondary brain injury. 5. Never attribute neurologic abnormalities solely to the presence of drugs or alcohol. I. Initial Management A. Airway Intubate* if: 1. Airway or ventilation is inadequate 2

Medical Management of Head Injury - CHES

1. Chest. 1986 Jun;89(6):864-72. Medical management of head injury. Luce JM. PMID: 3519110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: Research Support, U.S. Neurosurgery and Medical Management of Severe Head Injury Management of the patient with moderate to severe brain injury in any environment can be time consuming and resource intensive. In the austere or hostile environment, the challenges to deliver care to this patient population are magnified

Acute management In the setting of acute head injury, give priority to the immediate assessment and stabilization of the airway and circulation Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in patients with trauma. Management strategies must focus on preventing secondary injury by avoiding hypotension and hypoxia and maintaining appropriate cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which is a surrogate for cerebral blood flow

Management of Head Injur

Traumatic Brain Injury - PhysiopediaSymptoms and Diagnosis of Neck Pain

Medical management of head injury

  1. Medical Management • Presume that a person with a head injury has a cervical spine injury until proven otherwise. From the scene of the injury, the patient is transported on a board, with head and neck maintained in alignment with the axis of the body. Apply a cervical collar and maintain it unti
  2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a blow, bump or jolt to the head, the head suddenly and violently hitting an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue
  3. When transferring patients with head injury, convey the mechanism of injury to the receiving physician. This context provides important information on the injury type and severity
  4. Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a major contributor to long-term disability and a leading cause of death worldwide. Medical management of the sTBI patient, beginning with prehospital triage, is aimed at preventing secondary brain injury
  5. Head injury is defined as any trauma to the head regardless of mechanism or presence of neurological symptoms. 1 This guide provides an overview of the recognition and immediate management of a traumatic head injury using an ABCDE approach. The ABCDE approach can be used to perform a systematic assessment of a critically unwell patient
  6. DEFINITIONStrictly defined as alteration in the integrity of the head resulting from an impact.Hence, there may be both extracranial and intracranial components.However, the terms traumatic brain injury and head injury are often used interchangeably in the medical literature. 4. Head and brain 5

Practical Management of Head and Neck Injury is a unique textbook which comprehensively covers the patient journey from injury to the rehabilitation phase. It includes diagnosis and management of head and neck injury with additional chapters on prognosis and special conditions including head injury in sport, the elderly, children, pregnant. MD Consult - Management of severe head injury: Institutional variations in care and effect on outcome - Critical Care Medicine - Medical Journal Data Collection Medical records were abstracted by trained trauma nurses, who used a standardized abstract form

Neurosurgery and Medical Management of Severe Head Injur

This chapter provides an overview of the early and intensive care management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with a focus on interventions designed to optimize cerebral and systemic physiological variables in order to minimize secondary brain injury and systemic complications. Importantly, it has become increasingly apparent that intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure monitoring alone. Further medical management may be required based on the patient's symptoms, e.g. people who develop seizures after their injury may be given anti-seizure medications. If the patient is severely injured, a neurosurgeon may need to remove or repair hematomas (ruptured blood vessels), contusions (bruised brain tissue) or skull fractures The American Association of Neurologic Surgeons published a comprehensive evidence-based review of the treatment of TBI, called the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Head Injury. In these guidelines, 3 different categories of treatments, standards, guidelines, and options are outlined The individual who sustains a brain injury and his or her family are the most important members of the treatment team. Their choices, goals, and backgrounds must always be taken into consideration in treatment planning. The diagram above depicts brain injury treatment in an orderly progression from trauma care to community integration Head injury is the commonest cause of death and disability in people aged 1-40 years in the UK. Each year, 1.4 million people attend emergency departments in England and Wales with a recent head injury. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published guidance on managing head injury in 2003 (clinical guideline 4)1 and updated this in 2007 (clinical guideline 56),2 which.

Management of host nationals should be in accordance with medical rules of eligibility established for that AOR. Host National patients with mild head injury should be managed locally and should.. MD Consult - Management of severe head injury: Institutional variations in care and effect on outcome - Critical Care Medicine - Medical Journal Data Collection Medical records were abstracted by trained trauma nurses, who used a standardized abstract form

Head injury continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity despite the advances in early and late management and rehabilitation techniques. The extent and prognosis of brain injury are influenced by the primary impact and initiation of secondary mechanism. Outcome is also dependent on resuscitation and maintenance of cerebral oxygenation Adult Traumatic Brain Injury Management Guideline Policy: University Hospital is the Level I Trauma Center for the Central New York Region. This region consists of 14 counties and 28 hospitals, as determined by the New York State Department of Health. Upstate Medical University is the definitive care facility for this area. Strong evidenc Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury . 4th Edition Nancy Carney, PhD Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR MD Harvard Medical School & Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA . Monica S. Vavilala, MD University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Conservative Management of Iatrogenic Membranous Tracheal

Head Injury Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical

the costs for acute medical care. Data from well-designed, controlled studies on acute management of TBI are sparse. Evidence-based guidelines for TBI management have been compiled, but the paucity of high-quality studies limits the strength and scope of their counsel. The TQIP Best Practice Guidelines for the Management of Traumatic Brai The management of acute neurotrauma in rural and remote locations: A set of guidelines for the care of head and spinal injuries. J Clin Neurosci 1999; 6:85. Adelson PD, Bratton SL, Carney NA, et al. Guidelines for the acute medical management of severe traumatic brain injury in infants, children, and adolescents

Acute Management of Traumatic Brain Injur

  1. Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a major contributor to long-term disability and a leading cause of death worldwide. Medical management of the sTBI patient, beginning with prehospital triage, is aimed at preventing secondary brain injury. Thi
  2. Neurosurgery and Severe Head Injury (CPG ID:30) Provides guidelines and recommendations for the treatment and medical management of casualties with moderate to severe head injuries in an environment where personnel, resources and follow-on care may be limited. Contributors Col Randall McCafferty, USAF, MC CDR Chris Neal, MC, US
  3. Stabilize the head and neck by placing your hands on both sides of the person's head. Keep the head in line with the spine and prevent movement. Wait for medical help. Stop any bleeding by firmly pressing a clean cloth on the wound. If the injury is serious, be careful not to move the person's head

t guidelines and treatment options used in the management of intracranial hypertension... Brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) monitoring is used in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. How brain reduced PbtO2 should be treated and its response to treatment is not clearly defined. We examined which medical therapies restore normal PbtO2 in TBI patients. Forty-nine (mean age 40 ± 19 years) patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] ≤ 8) admitted to a University-affiliated.

Traumatic brain injury or intracranial hemorrhage is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the trauma patient. Patients receiving pre-injury anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapy are especially susceptible to poor neurological outcome due to the risk of injury progression for Management of Mild-TBI in Theater and mTBI in Non-Deployed Medical Activities. After the VA/DoD Working Group completed the review of the evidence for this guideline an Institute of Medicine (IOM) report addressing long-term consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury was published (IOM, 2009) A head injury is an injury to your brain, skull, or scalp. This can range from a mild bump or bruise to a traumatic brain injury. Common head injuries include concussions, skull fractures, and. Neurological physiotherapy is a process of interlocked assessment, treatment and management by which the individual with traumatic brain injury and their relatives/caregivers are supported to achieve the best possible outcome in physical, cognitive, social and psychological function, participation in society and quality of life Neurosurgery and Severe Head Injury (CPG ID: 30) Provides guidelines and recommendations for the treatment and medical management of casualties with moderate to severe head injuries in an environment where personnel, resources and follow-on care may be limited. Contributors Col Randall McCafferty, USAF, MC CDR Chris Neal, MC, US

Video: Traumatic brain injury - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clini

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical and socio-economic problem, and is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. The critical care management of severe TBI is largely derived from the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury that have been published by the Brain Trauma Foundation All clinicians providing medical clearance for return to play shall verify that they have received MDPH-approved training in post-traumatic head injury assessment and management, or have received equivalent training as part of their licensure or continuing education. The MDPH Medical Clearance and Authorization Form and all MDPH-approve Discuss the current status of corticosteroids in the management of increased ICP in severe head injury patients. Devise a treatment plan for using high-dose barbiturate therapy in a head injury patient refractory to maximal medical and surgical ICP-lowering therapies Traumatic parenchymal lesions. The parenchyma of the brain can be subject to injury and warrant surgical intervention as well. Indication for surgery in this type of injury is an intracerebral lesion with neurologic deterioration, and intracranial hypertension that is not responsive to medical management or signs of mass effect on CT ().Furthermore, patients with a GCS less than 9 and a.

Barbosa et al. Evaluation and management of mild traumatic brain injury: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery: November 2012 - Volume 73 - Issue 5 - p S307-S314 HEAD INJURY IS the most common cause of death and disability in children, accounting for nearly 7000 deaths the United States every year. This mortality rate is five times higher than leukemia, the second most common cause of death in children.1, 2 The manuscript is designed to assist the reader in the management of the most common types of pediatric head injury ALERT t Low risk/minor head injury is not no risk. All carers of children discharged, whether or not imaging has been performed, should receive verbal and written head injury advice including to seek medical care if low grade or vague symptoms persist +/- return to sport advice

To guide staff with the assessment and management of head injury in children. Background. In all head injuries consider the possibility of cervical spine injury; Head injury is the leading cause of death in children > 1 year of age; Head injury is the 3rd most common cause of death in children; Ratio of head injury, boys to girls is 2: If you have a head injury, seek medical attention right away. The FDA has not approved any devices that can assess or diagnose a traumatic brain injury without an evaluation by a health care provider Always seek medical attention for a head injury. There is no specific treatment for mild head injury other than plenty of rest and not overdoing things. It can take some time for the brain to recover from a head injury and during this time, headaches, dizziness and mild cognitive (thought) problems are common Head injuries are damage to the scalp, skull, or brain caused by trauma. When it affects the brain, they're called a traumatic brain injury, or TBI. To most people, head injuries are considered. Minor closed head injury is one of the most frequent reasons for visits to a physician. 1 Although >95 000 children experience a traumatic brain injury each year in the United States, 2 consensus is lacking about the acute care of children with minor closed head injury. The evaluation and management of injured children may be influenced by local practice customs, settings where children are.

Important Nursing Management of Head Injury Patien

  1. Head trauma leading to brain injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Estimates of the incidence in paediatric patients vary according to definition and methodology; however, the annual rate ranges from 130 to 200 cases per 100,000 population, leading to at least 20,000 emergency department (ED) visits in Canadian paediatric hospitals per year
  2. • Guidelines for Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. - Standards for surgical management • Guidelines for the Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury. - Standards for pediatric management • Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents
  3. Traumatic Brain Injury: Diagnosis, Acute Management and Rehabilitation (NZGG, 2006) received the highest score of 95.24%. Guidelines for the Management of Severe Head Injury, 2nd Edition guidelines from the Guidelines Committee on the Management of Severe Head Injury, the Japan Society of Neurotraumatology (JSN, 2012) received 66.67% as the lowest
  4. brain injury: [ in´jŭ-re ] harm or hurt; usually applied to damage inflicted on the body by an external force. Called also trauma and wound . brain injury impairment of structure or function of the brain, usually as a result of a trauma. deceleration injury a mechanism of motion injury in which the body is forcibly stopped but the contents of.
  5. Guidelines for the acute medical management of severe traumatic brain injury in infants, children, and adolescents. Chapter 9. Use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade in the treatment of severe pediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2003; 4 (3 Suppl): S34 -7
  6. To date, there are a limited number of medical devices that have been approved or cleared by the FDA to aid in diagnosis, treatment, or management of head injury, including suspected concussion.
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Neurosurgery and Medical Management of Severe Head Injury

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury Nursing Management. Medical & Surgical Nursing (Notes) Traumatic Brain Injury Nursing Management. Prev Article Next Article . Notes. Definition. Also known as head injury. Is the disruption of normal brain function due to trauma-related injury resulting in compromised neurologic function resulting in focal or diffuse.
  2. ation and the history of the exact details of the injury are the first steps in caring for a patient with head injury. The patient's past medical history and medication usage will also be important factors in deciding the next steps. Plain skull X-rays are rarely done for the evaluation of the head injury
  3. Neurology (from Greek: νεῦρον (neûron), string, nerve and the suffix -logia, study of) is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems (and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems), including.
  4. Experience in management, supervision and Bachelor's Degree or equivalent preferred. Experience with individuals with brain injuries in a community setting preferred

The early management of head injurie

severe head injury. Other important aspects of patient managementwhich were not covered in the present effort will beconsidered for studyin subsequent editions of this document. Examples of such topics include indications for neurosurg-ical intervention,specialconsiderationinpaediat-ric head injury, the management of penetrating head injury. Management of Head Injury - in the case of brain injury, hetertopic bone is usually resected once the patients coma has resolved; Data Trace specializes in Legal and Medical Publishing, Risk Management Programs, Continuing Education and Association Management

Eye Injury Prevention Month: Keeping a Clear View of

for secondary brain injury. The results of these trials would be certainly adopted by new standardized guidelines and therefore may have a substantial impact on the pre-hospital management in patients with TBI. Key words: Evidence, pre-hospital management, secondary brain injury, traumatic brain injury Address for correspondence: Dr. Tumul. High-quality clinical management of head injury takes the small chance of intracranial injury into account. Safe and cost-effective practice guidelines for primary care must therefore be based on a reliable risk calculation. In Europe, the annual incidence of head injury presenting in hospital emergency departments (EDs) is 2.3 per 1000 person. This management guideline is based on ACEP's 2008 Clinical Policy for adult mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) external icon, which revises the previous 2002 Clinical Policy. The policy focuses on identifying neurologically intact patients who have potentially significant intracranial injuries, and identifying patients with risk for prolonged.

Management of Head Injury - SlideShar

Traumatic brain injury remains a worldwide problem. Newer modalities in the management of such injuries include both drugs and therapeutic strategies. Continuing research in animal models has provided a better understanding of the pathophysiological processes that follow head injury, and this in turn has enabled workers to work on improved treatment targets The complete management of patients with head and neck trauma, from the accident scene through to rehabilitation; Safe, practical tips to assist the non-neurosurgeon in managing head injuries and preventing secondary brain injury―a major concern for emergency and pre-hospital medical personne Head injury is a common cause for hospital admission and additionally 250,000 UK inpatients fall during hospital admissions annually. Head injury most commonly occurs as a result of falls from standing height in older adults. Older adults are frequently frail and multi-morbid; many have indications for anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents. The haemorrhagic complications of head injury occur.

This parameter provides recommendations for the management of a previously neurologically healthy child with a minor closed head injury who, at the time of injury, may have experienced temporary. With the complexity of the traumatic brain injury and its wide-ranging consequences, no single medical speciality is sufficient to address all areas of management. In traumatic brain injury management, the role of the multidisciplinary team is invaluable with the physiotherapist/physical therapist role at its heart from acute to chronic stages 3) Discuss aspects of post TBI medical care which may influence therapy participation and outcomes. 4) Demonstrate understanding of pharmaceutical management for TBI care. 5) Describe current research which is impacting medical care of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury Guidelines for the Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury 2006 Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents-Second Edition 2012 Guidelines for the Field Management of Combat Related Head Trauma 2005 Early Indicators of Prognosis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury 200 A case of head injury. Correspondence to: B R K Smith brksmith@doctors.org.uk. An 82 year old man tripped on uneven paving and sustained a frontal head injury. A passer-by came to his aid and called an ambulance. The patient did not lose consciousness and was fully oriented at the scene. On arrival at the emergency department he was fully.

Reducing intracranial pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury. October 11, 2016. Author (s): Cindy L. Zerfoss, MSN, RN, ACNP-CS. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) refers to blunt or penetrating head injury that disrupts normal brain functioning, causing impaired thinking and memory, personality changes, and possible sensory and motor changes Head injury: triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in children, young people and adults (NICE guideline CG 176). Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2015;100(2):97-100. PubMed abstract. Dewan MC, Mummareddy N, Wellons JC 3rd, Bonfield CM. Epidemiology of global pediatric traumatic brain injury: qualitative review Concussions are microscopic traumatic brain injuries that result in neurologic symptoms not related to an intracranial bleed. A mild TBI, also known as a concussion, is defined as a GCS score of 13-15 with associated signs or symptoms after a blunt force or acceleration-deceleration head injury This secondary brain injury can result in increased mortality and more disabling injuries. Consequently, the early and appropriate management of TBI victims is critical to the survival of these patients. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers are often the first healthcare providers for patients with TBI

HEAD /SPINE INJURY: Never move a person who may have a spine injury unless they are in life-threatening/immediate danger. All head or spine injuries can be very serious. Seek medical attention in all cases of head or spinal injury! UNCONSCIOUS PERSON. Check for breathing and pulse. Summon help. If you are trained, perform CPR if needed Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluation, Treatment, and Rehabilitation. Traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion, can leave a person with lifelong symptoms. In this segment, specialists in 3 areas discuss TBI-induced cellular damage to the brain and the management of its sequalae. A traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion, can leave a person. HO of the shoulder has been found to affect 5% of individuals with a brain injury (Cipriano, Pill, & Keenan, 2009), while the knee is a less common site for HO following a head injury (Sarafis, Karatzas, & Yotis, 1999). Of the joints affected by HO after head injury, ankylosis is most likely to occur in the posterior elbow (Garland et al., 1980) Secondary injury is potentially preventable and reversible, and occurs after the time injury. Mechanisms of injury include oedema, hypoxia, hypotension, and metabolic disturbance.Once the primary brain injury has been recognized, the main objective of the management of acute traumatic brain injury is the prevention of secondary brain injury

Elbow injuries - EMCAGE

Head and Neck Injuries /. Traumatic Brain Injury. You have access. Failure to Thrive in a 15-month-old with a History of Head Trauma. Alona S. Sukhina, Oliver J. Oatman, Kara S. Lewis, Theresa C. Thomas, Danielle Brown, Rachel K. Rowe, P. David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz. Pediatrics in Review, Jan 2021, 42 (Supplement 1) S55-S59 Always call triple zero (000) for an ambulance in an emergency. This article offers first aid suggestions, but is not a substitute for professional medical care. Two types of head injury Head injuries can be classified as: Open - with bleeding wounds to the face or head; Closed - no visible signs of injury to the face or head. Closed head. 2. Miller JD. Changing patterns in acute management of head injury. J Neurol Sci 1991;103:S33-S37. 3. Miller JD. Assessing patients with head injury. Br J Surg 1990;77: 241-242. 4. Gentleman D, Dearden M, Midgley S, et al. Guidelines for resuscitation and transfer of patients with serious head injury. BMJ 1993;307: 547-552. 5 Each year around 700,000 people attend A&E departments with a head injury in England and Wales. Of these, more than 80% only have a minor injury. The most common causes of head injuries are falls, assaults, and road traffic collisions. Children are more likely to sustain a minor head injury because they're very active. Treating a minor head injury Secondary brain injury This is attributable to a decrease in cerebral oxygen delivery as a result of hypertension, hypoxia, cerebral oedema, intracranial hypertension or abnormalities in cerebral blood flow. Although the severity of primary brain injury cannot be reduced, secondary brain injury can be minimised if appropriate therapies are implemented in time (Wong, 2000)

Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Gat

The Brain Injury Network (BIN), a brain injury survivor advocacy organization, recommends the emphasis of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) classification entitled Post TBI Syndrome. This term would be used in an all-inclusive fashion and under its umbrella all medical, psychological and other diagnoses from post-tbi would be included Medical and neurological complications determine the final functional outcome, community reintegration as well as employment potential after a traumatic brain injury. Therefore, it is important to recognise the potential risks of those pathologies and to follow evidence based protocols to minimise the risk and extent of secondary complications Summary. Traumatic brain injury is defined as a structural injury to the brain or a disruption in the normal functioning of the brain as a result of a blunt or penetrating head injury.Head injury refers to trauma to the head that may or may not be associated with TBI, soft tissue injury, or skull fractures. Primary brain injury occurs as an immediate consequence of head injury at the time of. The patient with a head injury is at risk for additional complica-tions such as increased ICP and brain stem herniation. Cerebral edema is the most common cause of increased ICP in the patient with a head injury, with the swelling peaking approximately 48 to 72 hours after injury Mild Trauma tic Head Injury is the preferred term for Concussion and Minor Head Injury. These terms are interchangeable, referring to the same condition. IV. Criteria. Glasgow Coma Scale: 13-15 (at two hours) Loss of consciousness may have occurred with injury. Awake and oriented with normal Neurologic Exam ination

Medical Management Presume that a person with a head

treatment of head injury. The neurologic exam in general and the GCS score specifically may differ significantly from adults, depending on the age of the patient. Pediatric patients with head injury have a higher tendency than adults toward brain edema, hypoventilation or apnea, and require even earlier and more definitive airway support JAMA Neurology. Review. May 1, 2021. This systematic review examines studies of pharmacological interventions to assess their associations with symptom burden reduction among patients with mild traumatic brain injury and to identify directions for future research that may aid in clinical decision-making The management or nursing care plan ( NCP) for patient with an acute head injury are divided on the several levels including prevention, pre-hospital care, immediate hospital care, acute hospital care, and rehabilitation. In order to give accurate nursing care plan to the patients, The nurses should understand the principles behind medical. Reduction of severe behavior in acquired brain injury: Case studies illustrating clinical use of the OAS-MNR in the management of challenging behaviors. Brain Injury , 13(9), 669-704. Alderman, N. (2003)

Traumatic Brain Injury - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Introduction. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered as one of the most common causes of mortality in the young population. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are considered the main cause of severe traumatic brain injury in developing countries. 7 A TBI can result in a wide spectrum of clinical picture depending on the severity, that might affect cognition, mobility, sensation, behavior, and. Calcagnile O, Undén L, Undén J. Clinical validation of S100B use in management of mild head injury. BMC Emerg Med. 2012 Oct 27;12:13. doi: 10.1186/1471-227X-12-13. Layout table for additonal informatio With respect to the diagnostic and therapeutic management, a distinction between a brain and a non-brain (i.e. peripheral) injury seems reasonable. While a brain injury might always be a potentially serious injury, a non-brain injury usually has a favourable course

Managing spinal cord injury. There are three main areas to consider when treating patients suspected of having spinal cord injury (Alderson, 1999). Care involves: - Preventing increasing and permanent damage to the spinal cord; - Managing the spinal shock phase; - Managing the reflex phase